Spectroscopy involves the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
The branch of chemistry which concern with the investigation and measurement of spectra produced.When matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation.
Here, Radiation is defined broadly to include charged particles such as alpha α and beta β radiation.
Radiation is energy in the form of waves or particles that comes from a source and travels through space or through a medium.
The Electromagnetic radiation are considered as a waves of the energy. This waves of energy propagated from a source in space. The waves of energy consists of oscillating electric and magnetic field at right angle to each other. Each electromagnetic radiation has characteristics wavelength and frequency.
What is Photon?
The absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation is quantized and each quantum called photon.
The energy(E) of a photon given by plank’s law:
E = hv
where h is plank’s constant and v is frequency of radiation.
Important Electromagnetic radiation:
Some important electromagnetic radiation are radio wave, microwave, infra-red, x-rays,visible, ultraviolet , gamma rays.
The instrument that used for investigation of absorption phenomena is called spectrophotometer.
Importance of spectroscopy:
Spectroscopy helps astronomers to determine the composition, temperature ,density and motion of an object.
Infrared spectroscopy helps to identify the atoms and molecules in the object.
The red shift and blue shift in spectral lines tells us how fast the object is receding from earth or coming toward it.
Spectroscopy and spectrography are those terms that used a refer to the measurement of radiation intensity as a function of wave-length. The terms are often used to describe experimental spectroscopic method.
Types of spectroscopy:
- Atomic emission spectro-scopy (AES)
- Atomic absorption spectro-scopy (AAS)
- X-rays spectro-scopy
- Flame ionization spectro-scopy
- UV (ultraviolet) spectro-scopy
- I.R (infra-red ) spectro-scopy
- Spark or arc spectro-scopy
- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS)