Titration  or Titrimetry:

   Titration is also known as titrimetry.

It is popular laboratory method for quantitative chemical analysis to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte.

 

Since volume play a key role in It . A known concentration and volume of titrant react with a solution of analyte .The volume of titrate reacted is called Titration Volume.




 

Titration -or-Titrimetry-apparatus-diagram

 

 

TYPES  of Titration:

 
Titration can be calssified as:

 

  1. Acid- base Titration
  2. Redox Tit-ration
  3. Precipitation Tit-ration
  4.  Complexometric Titrations
 

ACID- BASE TITRATION

 

The strength of an acid can be determined using a stranded solution of base is called Acidimetry.

Similarly,the power of base can be determined with the aid of stranded acid solution  is known as Alkalimetry.

Both involve neutralization of alkali;

 
       HA+BOH
 

THE ACID BASE TIT-RATION is based on neutralization between acid or acid analyte. In this type a reagent is mixed with the sample solution until it reached the required pH level this type of tit-ration majority  depends on the track  change in pH or a pH meter.

REDOX TITRATION;

The redox tit-ration is also known as an oxidation reduction reaction. In this type of tit-ration , the chemical reaction takes place with a transfer of electrons in the reacting ions of aqueous solution.  In this type of tit-ration are named after the reagent that is used as follows.

 
  •   Permenganate titration
  •   dichromate tit-ration
  • iodimetric titration

PERAMANGANATE TIT-RATION ;

In this tit-ration the potassium permanganate is used as oxidizing agent it is maintained with the  uses of dilute sulfuric acid.

 

REACTION;

 

2KMnO4+3H2SO4

 

Mn4-+8H+5e

 

Further the solution remain colorless before the end point . The potassium peramangnate is always standardized before it is used.

 

DICHROMATE TIT-RATION ;

 

THESE ARE TITRATION IN WHICH POTASSIUM DICHROMATE is used as in oxidizing agent in acid medium is maintained acidic by the use of dilute sulfuric acid the eq is ;

 EQUATION ;
 
K2cr2o7 =4H2SO4
 

THE potassium dichromate solution can be used directly for titration, which is used specifically to measure ferrous salt and iodides.

 
IODOMETRIC TIT-RATION;
 
          The reduction of free iodine to iodide and oxidation of iodide ions to free occur in these titration.
 
I2+2e
[REDUCTION]
 
2I
[OXIDATION]
 

    THE SOLUTION is used as an indicator free iodine is used in iodometric titration.  While in the iodometric titration an oxidation agents is used to react to liberate free iodine.

 

PRECIPITATION TIT-RATION;

   THE tit-ration is based on the insoluble precipitation formation. When the two reacting  substance are brought into contact are called as precipitation tit-ration . For instance the solution of silver nitrate is used to a ammonium thicuanate.


 

REACTION ;

AgNO3+NaCl
 
Complexometric tit-ration;
 

 The complexometric tit-ration is where an undissociated complex is formed at an equivalence  point .

It is greater then precipitation tit-rations and rare will be no error due to co precipitations reactions.

HG2+2SCN
 
The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] IS AN important reagent that form complex with metal.
 

USES;

In biodiesel;

Waste vegetable oil needs to be neutralized before lot can be processed to titrate portion of wvo with base to determine acidity.

method ;

measure of nitrogen content is digested into ammonia with sulfuric acid and potassium sulfate in sample of organic nitrogen. Finally ammonia is back tit-rated  with buric acid and then sodium carbonate.

ACID VALUE ;

The mass in milligram of KOH required to titrate an acid in one gram of sample e.g determination of free fatty acid.

Saponification number;

The mass in milligram of KOH required to saponify a fatty acid in one gram of sample. It is used to determine the fatty acid chain size.

ESTER VALUE;

A calculated index ester value= saponification number –acid value.

AMINE VALUE;

 THE  mass in milligram of KOH equal the amine content in one gram of sample.

HYDROXYL VALUE ;

     THE mass in milligram of KOH  corresponding to OH group in one gram of sample. The analyte is acetylated using acetatic anhydride then titrated with KOH.

VITAMIN;

Also known as ascorbic acid vitamin c  is a powerful reducing agent. When titrated with blue dyeDCPIP that turns colorless,its concentration can be easily identified.

BROMINE NUMBER;

A measure of unsaturation in an analyte express in milligram of bromine absorbed by 100 gram of sample.

IODINE NUMBER;

A MEASURE OF UNSATURATION IN AN ANAYLTE EXPRESS IN gram of iodine absorb by 100 gram of sample.

Also read:

What are types of paper chromatography?Explain

What is Sampling and sampling method ? Explanation