Spectroscopy involves the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
The branch of chemistry that has been produced that is concerned with investigating and measuring spectra.When matter interacts with or emits electromagnetic radiation.
Here, Radiation is defined broadly to include charged particles such as alpha α and beta β radiation.
Radiation is energy in the form of waves or particles that comes from a source and travels through space or through a medium.
The Electromagnetic radiation are considered as a waves of the energy. This waves of energy propagated from a source in space. The waves of energy consists of oscillating electric and magnetic field at right angle to each other. Each electromagnetic radiation has characteristics wavelength and frequency.
What is Photon?
The absorption or emission of electromagnetic radiation is quantized and each quantum called photon.
The energy(E) of a photon given by plank’s law:
E = hv
where h is plank’s constant and v is frequency of radiation.
Important Electromagnetic radiation:
Some important electromagnetic radiation are radio wave, microwave, infra-red, x-rays,visible, ultraviolet , gamma rays.
The instrument that used for investigation of absorption phenomena is called spectrophotometer.
Importance of spectroscopy:
Spectroscopy aids astronomers in determining an object’s structure, temperature, density, and motion.
Infrared spectroscopy helps identify the object’s atoms and molecules.
The red shift and blue shift in spectral lines tells us how fast the object is receding from earth or coming toward it.
Spectroscopy and spectrography are the terms used to refer to the radiation intensity measurement as a wave-length function. The terms are often used to describe experimental spectroscopic method.
Types of spectroscopy:
- Atomic emission spectro-scopy (AES)
- Atomic absorption spectro-scopy (AAS)
- X-rays spectro-scopy
- Flame ionization spectro-scopy
- UV (ultraviolet) spectro-scopy
- I.R (infra-red ) spectro-scopy
- Spark or arc spectro-scopy
- Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS)