Organic chemistry:

Old definition:
The branch of chemistry which deals with the study of compounds of carbon however the oxide of carbon,carbon mono oxide,carbon dioxide,carbonate,bicarbonate (CO,CO2,CO32,HCO3 ,CN-) etc.Exception to this general definition of organic chemistry.
These carbon containing compounds do not contain functional group in there molecule.These are study in inorganic chemistry.

Modern definition:

Precised definition of organic chemistry is study of hydrocarbons and there derivatives.

Importance of organic compounds:

  • Food: Use to maintain health,carbohydrate,protein and fat.
  • Clothing: cottons, silk,wool, mil-on,nylon and rayon.
  • Medicines: penicillin,streptomycin,power and energy,natural gas, petroleum.
  • Shelter: wood , herbicides,paints,insecticides,enzymes, pigments.
  • Dyes: paper,vitamins,ink,photographic films,fertilizers,soap,steroid.

Difference between organic and inorganic compound :

          

Organic compound:

  1. Mostly made  of carbon and few others elements chiefly hydrogen , oxygen,nitrogen,sulphur and  halogens.
  2. They form covalent bond so we have complex structure.
  3. They show isomerism.
  4. Maybe gasses,liquid and solid.
  5. Organic compound mostly insoluble in water but soluble organic solvent.
  6. They have low melting point.
  7. Reaction are slow  in organic compound.

Inorganic compound:

  1. Made of two or more element of the periodic elements.
  2. These are simple ionic molecule and form simple structure.
  3. Do not show isomerism.
  4. These are generally solid.
  5. These are soluble in water and mostly insoluble in organic solvent.
  6. They have high melting point.
  7. Reaction are fast.

Questions

  1. Why are organic compounds water-insoluble yet organic solvent-soluble?

Ans:  Polar compounds are soluble in polar solvents and non-polar in non-polar solvents. Generally organic compounds are non-polar so, most of them are insoluble in water as water is a polar solvent. Even then, it dissolves in water. This is because at the end of the chain there is an ionic bond.

Generally organic compounds are non-polar so, most of them are insoluble in water as water is a polar solvent. It contains polar O-H bond in ethanol. Hence it is soluble in water. But it is not as polar as water and hence it readily dissolves in non-polar solvents too like ethers.

2. Why is quick inorganic reaction and slow organic reaction?

Inorganic reaction are fast:

Ans:   Inorganic reaction are faster because the reactants are in ionic form so ready to bond and form products.In case of inorganic reaction the bond breaking has to take place prior to bond formation.
3.  Why inorganic compound have high melting point and organic compound  show low melting point?
Ans: Inorganic compounds are mostly made of strong ionic bonds so they have high melting and boiling point and i case of organic compound they are made by comparatively weak covalent bond which is cause of there low melting and boiling point.

Sources of organic compounds:

The sources of organic compounds are plants,animals,natural gas,petroleum,fermentation,coal,synthesis etc

source-of-organic-chemistry-description

source-of-organic-chemistry

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